Faculty of Sciences

Bachelor of Science in Life and Earth Sciences



The mission of the Department of Earth and Life Sciences is to provide students the opportunity to explore biology and geology and the methods for educating in these areas. We are committed to excellence in our teaching and research programs.

Program Educational Objectives

1. Graduates will be able to solve problems, communicate effectively, integrate basic knowledge with new findings, and think critically.
2. Develop skills needed to perform experimentation and data gathering.
3. Have occupation as a researcher in laboratory and/or field settings using...
appropriate basic equipment.
4. Be able to apply the scientific method and critical thinking in an ethical fashion to biology problems.

Program Outcomes

a. An ability to apply basic knowledge of mathematics, statistics and applied sciences.
b. An ability to define and explain major concepts in the biological sciences.
c. An ability to correctly use biological instrumentation and proper laboratory techniques.
d. An ability to communicate biological knowledge in oral and written form.
e. An ability to explain and apply the scientific method including designing and conducting experiments and testing hypotheses.
f. An ability to recognize the relationship between structure and function at all levels: molecular, cellular, and organismal.
g. An ability to demonstrate the ability to read, understand, and critically review scientific information.
h. An ability to demonstrate ethical conduct in scientific activities.
i. An understanding of professional, ethical, legal, security and social issues and responsibilities.
96 credits
General Education
Arts and Humanities
3 credits
Behavioral and Social Sciences
3 credits
Civic Engagement
2 credits
English Communication
3 credits
MAT216General Mathematics
3 credits
This course provides the basics needed by students to progress in their specialty courses. Topics covered include: function of a real variable, elementary functions, Taylor's expansion, simple integral and methods of integration, differential equations, multivariable functions, continuity, partial derivative, the chain rule, differential, introduction to double integrals, methods of integration, Matrix calculus, determinants, and linear systems.
PHY210General Physics
3 credits
The objective of this course is the introduction of various laws, principles and physical mechanisms, whose understanding is essential to students pursuing studies in various branches of science. This course consists of several independent parts. The first one deals with dynamics, the different types of motion, Newton's laws, and conservation of energy. The second part deals with hydrostatics and fluid dynamics. The third part deals with thermodynamics, calorimeters, the first principle and the basic transformations, the ideal gas, and thermodynamic cycles. The fourth part concerns the analysis of simple electrical circuits using Kirchhoff laws and the movement of a particle in an electromagnetic field. In the fifth part we talk about relativity, the theory of photons, and the photoelectric effect. Upon completion of this course the students will have acquired sufficient knowledge of several basic principles in physics and be familiar with these various topics.
History of Lebanon
3 credits
STA220Probability and Applied Statistics
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: MAT213 Or MAT215 Or MAT216 Or MAT218 Or NUT210 Or NTR210
This course prepares students for the practical use of probability and statistics in the biomedical field (agronomy, chemistry, biochemistry, nutrition, medicine, etc.). Topics covered are: elements of descriptive statistics, population, statistical unit, frequency distribution characteristic of central tendency and dispersion; concepts of probability and combinatorics, conditional probability and Bayes' formula, applications, discrete and continuous random variables, expectation and moments, weak law of large numbers, empirical frequencies and probabilities customary laws (Binomial, Multinomial, Poisson, Normal) and asymptotic behavior, the law of large numbers, sampling and estimation, introduction to the use of hypothesis tests, and the Chi­2 contingency table.
Quantitative Reasoning
3 credits
Religious Sciences
3 credits
1 credits
Common Core
BIO222Animal Histology
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO211 Or BLG211
Animal histology describes animal tissues relating structure to function. The lectures present details of the basic tissues (epithelium, connective tissue, muscle, and nerve) and emphasizes human histology.
BIO211Cell Biology
3 credits
In this course students will study the structures and functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We will focus on eukaryotic cells by examining different areas of cell biology including: the plasma membrane and organelles structures and functions, cellular communication, the cell cycle and its regulation, as well as synthesis and function of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins.
INF304CS for Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biology
3 credits
This course aims to familiarize students of chemistry, biochemistry and biology with the use of advanced software to provide models to illustrate their field of study. Topics include: advanced use of Excel and chemistry applications; tools for drawing molecules; processing molecules in 2D and 3D; introduction to cheminformatics, introduction to bioinformatics and molecular modeling; the structure of proteins (Protein Data Bank and pdb file); demonstration and use of PyMol; and sequence alignment using BioEdit.
BIO221General Anatomy
2 credits
This course is an introduction to human anatomy. It covers the study and description of the various component systems of the human body.
CHM212General Chemistry
3 credits
The purpose of this course is to present a general outline on chemistry. Through this course chemistry is introduced in its various aspects: the structure of the atom, the various models, and the properties of the elements in the periodic table; various chemical bonds, the Lewis structure, VSEPR rules; thermochemistry, thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium; kinetic chemistry, reactions rate orders, the Arrhenius law; solutions chemistry, acids and bases and various acid­base equilibrium; complexation, liquid solid equilibrium and solubility product; and redox titration and electrochemical cells.
BIO270Laboratory of Biology
1 credits
This course has two parts: practical work with cell biology, and practical work with animal biology. The objective of this course is to familiarize students with the basic concepts of cellular architecture and its organelles in the broader context of biological principles and to understand how cells interact with each other and the environment. It also includes the observation and description of families of different tissues constituting our body.
CHM270Laboratory of General Chemistry
1 credits    |    Pre-requisite: CHM212 Or CHE212 Or CHM210 Or CHE210
The general chemistry laboratory aims to develop different skills for the practical application of theoretical knowledge of general chemistry. Techniques to be learned: preparation and dilution of solutions, experimental verification of the Nernst equation, realization of different types of acid­base and redox titration by volumetric, calorimetric, pH­metric or potentiometric monitoring, and the study of solubility and precipitation reactions and characterization of ions present in a given matrix. The goal of the lab course is to ensure that students are capable of understanding the chemical concepts and to carry out experiments safely and carefully in the laboratory, to obtain data accurately and to manipulate the data correctly.
BCH320Structural Biochemistry
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: CHM317 Or CHM311 Or CHE311
This course is based on an understanding of the different biochemical processes taking place in the human body. It enables students to acquire a basic foundation in biochemistry so they are able to competently address all areas related to medical biochemistry. Structural biochemistry defines the structure of the various molecules of living matter such as carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, enzymes, nucleotides and vitamins.
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO320 Or BIO319
The course aims at analyzing fundamental biological questions through physics. During this course, these disciplines will be integrated in the analysis of fundamental biological questions focused on the interactions of the living cell with its physical environment and on the physical laws governing the physiology of the cell and even the physical basis of the main medical instrumentations. The aim of this course is to understand important physical concepts, while integrating them in the living world. Teaching will link the biology and physics, showing the relevance of physics in the analysis and understanding of biological phenomena.
BIO327Developmental Biology
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO222 Or BLG222
This course reviews the different concepts of development. Also studied are meiotic division, gametogenesis and hormonal regulation, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, folliculogenesis, fertilization, the different types of eggs, segmentation, gastrulation, neurulation and organogenesis. In addition, a comparative study of the evolution of the organs is performed.
BIO228General Botany
3 credits
The course has two parts: plant histology and biology. Histology is the study of meristems, parenchyma and plant tissues, their origins, their characteristics, and role. Plant biology looks at the lower and higher plants, their characteristics and their classifications.
GEO327General Geology
3 credits
This course is a general introduction to the earth sciences. The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with a description of the different geology domains. Basic concepts of geological phenomena occurring on planet earth from earthquakes to volcanos, simple winds to tornados are developed. As a tool to understanding the history and movements of planet earth and its future, this course covers time itself from the big bang and the formation of the universe as we know it, till the appearance of the first building blocks of life.
BIO336General Immunology
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO211
This course provides the basics of immunology from a daily practice point of view. It begins with a presentation of the main findings in the field, and biographical excerpts from prominent authors that have contributed to the development of this science. The main immune effectors are described as well as the two major immune processes: non­specific or innate and specific or adaptive immunity. The establishment of immune responses is clearly stated. The course also describes organ transplantation and rejection reactions and outlines major diseases involving the immune system. Finally, some immunological techniques are presented.
BIO411General Microbiology
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO322 And (BCH410 Or BCH415 Or BCH300 Or BCH320)
This course is designed to give students a comprehensive understanding of bacterial physiology, metabolism, growth conditions, identification, pathogenesis and microbial control methods. It equips students with the tools they will need to understand and address the complex microbial issues related to environmental science, food science, industrial processes and public health. The first part is devoted to the description of bacterial structure (cytoplasm, cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, glycocalyx, flagella, pili, etc.). The second part studies bacterial metabolism and growth (different trophic types, growth conditions, culture media, etc.). In the third part the main antibiotic families and bacterial genetics are discussed (mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, resistance mechanisms, operons, horizontal genetic transfers, etc.). The fourth part discusses the mechanisms of pathogenicity in bacteria (virulence, toxigenesis, interactions between host and bacteria). The fifth and last part concerns viruses. The basics of virology are explained as well as the different virus families and types, the mechanism of pathogenicity of the virus and the way it affects host cells.
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO211 Or BIO210 Or BLG211
The purpose of this course is to provide basic knowledge of genetics: cytogenetic (the study of chromosomes), formal genetics (the study of hereditary transmission mechanisms), molecular genetics (the study of nucleic acids, their replication, transcription and translation), and bacterial genetics.
CHM438Internship and Conferences
1 credits
Students are required to undergo training in an institution where the work domain covers their field of study. After training, the students are required to write a detailed report regarding their work and defend it in an oral presentation.
BIO473Lab of Biology and Physiology of Plants
1 credits
These laboratory sessions contribute to the understanding of how plants function. It provides students with hands­on experience in basic physiological principles related to nutrient deficiencies, membrane permeability and composition, water/nutrient absorption and translocation, transpiration, photosynthesis and physiological functions of growth regulators.
BIO471Laboratory of Microbiology
1 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO411 Or BIO270
The main purpose of this lab is to teach students all the basics to be able to undertake different types of microbiological analysis (water analysis, food and liquid analysis). It will focus on the basics of good manipulation in a microbiology lab and all the precautions to take to avoid contamination. The students will also learn to identify the types and species of bacteria.
BIO472Laboratory of Molecular Biology
1 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO413
This course provides students with the opportunity to practice most of the concepts covered in the course of Molecular Biology (BLG413): genomic and DNA plasmid extractions, PCR amplification, enzyme digestion, SDS­PAGE, Western blot and bacterial transformation.
CHM371Laboratory of Organic Chemistry
1 credits    |    Pre-requisite: (CHM311 Or CHM317) And CHM270
The objective of this practical work is to illustrate by experiment the concepts covered in the course of organic chemistry for students in chemistry and biochemistry and for medical students.
BIO413Molecular Biology
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO411
The course begins with a review of nucleic acids and looks at the methods for their extraction, separation and analysis. Secondly, the course extensively studies the regulation of gene expression and provides an update on the changes to the nucleic acids transcriptionally, post­ transcriptional and translational. Finally, detailed molecular analysis techniques, cloning, PCR, sequencing and development of DNA banks are described.
CHM317Organic Chemistry
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: CHM212
Organic chemistry is an introduction to the structure, reactivity, and properties of organic compounds. This course is intended to introduce students to the major concepts in organic chemistry and prepare them for the upper level classes in chemistry and biochemistry they will take in the coming semesters and the organic chemistry requirements for medical schools. Topics to include: introduction and review of electronic structure and bonding in organic molecules; nomenclature of organic compounds; structure and properties of alkanes, cycloalkanes, and alkyl halides; stereoisomerism and chirality of organic compounds; and the structure, properties and reactivity of alkynes and alkenes.
2 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO211
This course aims to introduce homeostasis, defined as the dynamic physiological equilibrium of the organism. It examines the cellular functions of the nervous and endocrine systems. This course will enable the students to establish links between the structure and the function and will present the basic mechanisms regulating the physiological functions of the human organism.
BIO415Systems Physiology
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BIO319 Or BIO320 Or BIO321
This course is designed to provide students with un understanding of the function and the regulation of the human body and physiological integration of the organ systems. This course content will include the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and urinary systems.
CHM425Analysis Techniques
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: CHM222
This course is intended to provide a set of basic knowledge on a number of methods encountered in chemical and biochemical analyzes, qualitative and quantitative, in sectors as varied as the chemical industry, food processing, environmental science, pollution and medical science.
BCH422Biochemistry of Integrated Systems
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BCH300 Or BCH410 Or BCH415 Or BCH320 Or BCM320
The course is divided into three parts. In the first part, we discuss the structure and dynamics of membranes. The students will receive specialized information concerning lipid and protein composition of the cell membrane, membrane fluidity and cellular traffic. Then, the domain of the translocation of proteins across the membrane will be detailed explaining to students the destination of a non­cytoplasmic protein (ER, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, nucleus, and peroxisomes). In the last part, the students will be introduced to the concept of cell signaling and signal transduction. The different types of membrane receptors and channels of cellular signaling will be described. The various effectors, the coupling mechanisms between receiver and effector, as well as the second messengers produced by these effectors will be detailed.
CHM222Chemistry of Solutions
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: CHM212
This course brings together the necessary knowledge to understand the reactions in solutions that are the fundamentals of many methods used both in the fields of chemistry, biochemistry or biology, as well as in pharmaceutical analysis. After a reminder of key points and generalities, the course develops four main components: acid­base equilibria, complexation equilibria, redox reactions and the formation reactions of poorly soluble compounds.
GEO412Ecology and Environment
3 credits
This course aims to introduce students to environmental problems. The notion of ecology is introduced as well as its relationship with the environment. The various chemical processes in the atmosphere, waters, soils and the biosphere are discussed. The disruption caused by various human activities, chemical pollution and toxic substances, and the impact on biodiversity are argued.
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BCH410 Or BCH300 Or BCH415 Or BCH320 Or BCM320
Enzymology is one of the key disciplines that a student in biology, biochemistry or even chemistry must master. This course presents the basic concepts of enzymology. Students will discover the applications of enzymes in several fields such as scientific research, industry, food, medicine and the environment. Many examples have been included to clarify or supplement the topics covered. Some exercises and solutions will enable students to improve or to assess their level of knowledge.
CHM426Food Chemistry
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: CHM311 Or CHM317
This course gives students information on various matter changes during conservation and technological treatments. It defines the main biochemical compositions of foodstuffs such as milk, meat, cereals, oils, etc. It also outlines the various toxic compounds naturally present in food as well as the range of additives.
BCH421Metabolic Biochemistry
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: BCH415 Or BCH410 Or BCH300 Or BCH320 Or BCM320
Understanding all vital processes requires knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their integration in metabolic pathways. This course covers two basic areas of molecular biochemistry which are the production and storage of energy, and the biosynthesis of macromolecules. The course starts with the metabolism of carbohydrates, the main producer of energy in the cell. Several topics are devoted to the study of glycogen metabolism, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway, then lipid metabolism (β oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis), and on protein metabolism (transamination, urea cycle), and then nucleotide metabolism.
CHM411Organic Chemistry II
3 credits    |    Pre-requisite: CHM311 Or CHM317
This course covers: types of reactions (substitution, addition, elimination, radical, rearrangement); energetic diagrams (kinetic); mechanisms and reaction intermediates (SN1, SN2, E1, E2, etc.); reactivity and reactions: alkanes, alkenes (Markovnikov rule, Kharash, polymerisation), dienes (Diels­Alder), alkynes; reactivity of halogenated derives (SN2 and Walden inversion, SN1, effect of different parameters, E2 and rule of Saîtzef, E1); benzenic hydrocarbons: electrophilic substitution SE2 (Friedel Crafts alkylation, acylation, effect of the substituent, etc.); aldehydes and ketones (Canizzaro, Wittig, etc.); and organometalics.
CHM436Research Project
1 credits
Topics selected from recent literature on biochemistry and/or chemistry are studied in depth. A combination of workshops, announced seminars and announced conferences will be given covering assigned material. For the literature club students will be responsible for submitting several one­page summaries of articles from the current scientific literature. Summaries will be graded on relevance, critical analysis and presentation..
Holy Spirit University of Kaslik
Tel.: (+961) 9 600 000
Fax : (+961) 9 600 100
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